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Mario's Milice documentation (Could this be a sticky?)

 
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Mario
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Joined: 15 May 2007
Posts: 560
Location: Mohawk Valley, NY
Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:53 pm    Post subject: Mario's Milice documentation (Could this be a sticky?) Reply with quote

Note: This is fairly specific to MY persona of a voyageur/fur trader called back for milice duty. This may not be the exact route you take with your persona and is intended to give a little basic info to folks looking to portray milice during the French & Indian War. I'll be adding things as I go, so check back every so often.



Personal Information

Name: Pierre du Nord
Time Period: 1745-1760
Geographic Region: St. Lawrence River valley and the Champlain corridor
Place of Birth: Montreal, Quebec
Date of Birth: 19 December 1722
Religion: Roman Catholic
Occupation: Fur trader, milicien

Pierre is licensed trader. He has spent many seasons in the Bush trading with the Abenaki, Huron, Caughnawaga and Montagnais. (1)

Because of his familiarity with wilderness travel and the Indian way of waging war, he has been called east to help defend New France against the English in these uncertain times. His company was sent to help garrison Fort Saint Frederic on the expedition led by Chevalier St. Luc de la Corne in the summer of 1747.

He is married, but does not yet have any children. His grandfather, Jean Luc du Nord, was a veteran of the raids on Schenectady (1690) and Deerfield (1704).

1. “The third sort of trade was undertaken by traders or woodsmen who loaded up some canoes with goods, obtained their passes & went off to Indian nations beyond the range of our posts. They waited for the Indians to return to their villages after the hunt, or followed them into the bush, and came back after trading the goods in their canoes for considerable profits.”
Pouchot, Pierre, Memoirs on the Late War in North America between France and England pg. 343


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Last edited by Mario on Sun Jul 18, 2010 1:00 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Mario
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Joined: 15 May 2007
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Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

(P)- Primary Source (S)- Secondary Source


Clothing

Breechcloth and Leggings: Woodland-style, wool

(P)- “1 breechcloth, 1 pair of leggings”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

(P)- “1 pair of wool leggings, 1 breechcloth”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

Hat:Wool tuque/Bonnet drap

(P)- Mention of an order of 8,000 bonnets drapes for Canadian militia.
Lettre d’Abraham Gradis, 11 octubre 1757 as cited in Delisle, Steve. The Equipment of the New France Militia 1740-1760 pg 10

(P)- “Most of them wear red woolen caps at home and sometimes on their journey.”
Kalm, P. Voyage de Pehr Kalm au Canada en 1749 pg. 511

Shirts: French chemise d’homme, cotton

(P)- “2 cotton shirts”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

(P)- “The six canadiens receive the following…6 cotton shirts”
Supplies for the expedition led by the Chevalier de Niverville, 1747. Archives des colonies, series C11A, volume 117.

Footwear, summer: Soulier de boeuf (oxhide shoe)

(P)-“The six canadiens receive the following…6 pairs of oxhide shoes.”
Supplies for the expedition led by the Chevalier de Niverville, 1747. Archives des colonies, series C11A, volume 117.

(P)- “1 pair of tanned shoes per month”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

Footwear, summer: moccasins, center-seam, moose/deer hide

(P)-“From the skins of these animals [deer] the natives as well as the French in Canada make their shoes which they use on their journeys…”
Kalm, P. Voyage de Pehr Kalm au Canada en 1749 pg 589

(P)- "Though many nations imitate the French customs, I observed on the contrary, that the French in Canada in many respects follow the customs of the Indians, with whom they have constant relations. They use the tobacco pipes, shoes, garters, and girdles of the Indians. "
Kalm. pg 511

(S)- “A breechcloth, mitasses and moccasins completed the basic clothing.”
Delisle, Steve. The Equipment of the New France Militia 1740-1760 pg. 9

Sash: Simple wool strip/finger-woven Indian style.

(P)- “Usually three knives; one hanging about the neck, one in the sash and one along the leg, outside, in the garter.”
Jolicoeur Charles Bonin Voyage au Canada fait depuis l’an 1751 jusqu’en l’an 1761

(P)- "Though many nations imitate the French customs, I observed on the contrary, that the French in Canada in many respects follow the customs of the Indians, with whom they have constant relations. They use the tobacco pipes, shoes, garters, and girdles of the Indians. "
Kalm. pg 511

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Last edited by Mario on Sat Nov 20, 2010 3:02 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Mario
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Joined: 15 May 2007
Posts: 560
Location: Mohawk Valley, NY
Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

(P)- Primary Source (S)- Secondary Source


Arms

Firelock: Fusil de Chasse, TotW kit, 20-bore 44" barrel, iron furniture.

(P)- “…among whom there were many Canadians who were dispersed among the regiments to swell their numbers. These men, who are only suited to petite-guerre & who were in any case poorly armed since they only had simple hunting muskets without bayonets…”
Pouchot, Pierre. Memoirs on the Late War in North America between France and England pg. 225

(S)- “The objective was to produce a hunting musket that was out of the ordinary to be distributed to the allied Indian chiefs or to the personnel working for the King and fur traders.”
Bouchard, Russel. The Fusil de Tulle in New France 1691-1741 pg. 25

Gun tools: Worm

(P)- “1 worm”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

(P)- “All soldiers and militia are forbidden to fire their weapons on the pretext of emptying them. They must unload with a worm.”
Bougainville, Antoine. The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 23


Shot Pouch:
Deerskin Slitpouch

(P)- Deerskin Slitpouch, ca. 1750
Collection of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association

(P)- Slit pouch worn by 3 “coureurs de bois” in a ca. 1730 sketch.
Biencke rare books collection, Yale University

Powder Horn: simple cow horn with a leather strap and antler measure.

(P)-“The Indians and French in Canada, make use of the horns of these creatures [wild cattle/buffalo] to put gunpowder in.”
Kalm, P. Voyage de Pehr Kalm au Canada en 1749 pg. 406

(P)- “In the [October 20th] 1755 supply order…[Francois-Marc-Antoine] Le Mercier requests 5,500 powder horns from France, with a one-pound capacity, to equip the habitants.”
As mentioned in Delisle, Steve. The Equipment of the New France Militia 1740-1760 pg. 32


Sheath Knife: French butcher knife (“boucheron”), forged by ML Knives

(P)-“1 boucheron knife”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

(P)-Recovery from French camp on Lake George, Siege of Fort William Henry, 1757.

Tomahawk: French style “casse-tete”, straight handle

(P)- “1 tomahawk”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

(P)- Simon Gilbert Collection
As seen in Delisle, Steve. The Equipment of the New France Militia 1740-1760 pg. 30

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Last edited by Mario on Sat Nov 20, 2010 3:02 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Mario
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Joined: 15 May 2007
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Location: Mohawk Valley, NY
Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

(P)- Primary Source (S)- Secondary Source


Campaign Equipment

Canteen: Captured British issue, tin.

(P)- “…I heard a great number of scalp-halloos, and saw a company of Indians and French coming in. I observed they had a great number of bloody scalps, grenadier’s caps, British canteens, bayonets, etc…”
Smith, James Account of the Remarkable Occurrences in the life of Col. James Smith as quoted in Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe pg. 130

Note- This is the ONLY instance of French canteen possession that I have been able to find. At the time I compiled this, I was applying for membership in the ALRA and a canteen was a required item.


Pack: Blanket roll carried on a tumpline

(P)- “2 burden straps”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

(P)- “The six canadiens receive the following…6 tumplines.”
Supplies for the expedition led by the Chevalier de Niverville, 1747. Archives des colonies, series C11A, volume 117.

Cooking/Eating:
“Dog-eared” trade kettle from High Horse Trading

(P)- 400 brass pots without lids ordered for delivery in 1747
Archives des colonies, C11A, volume 86, folio 12

(P)- “In addition, for each soldier and militiaman…1 cooking pot per 2 men.”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)


Cooking/eating:
Horn Spoon

(P)- “For each person they put a…spoon…”
Kalm, P. Voyage de Pehr Kalm au Canada en 1749 pg. 474


Fire Kit: Fire-steel, flat oval style. Made by Mike Ameling

(P)- “The six canadiens receive the following…6 fire-steels.”
Supplies for the expedition led by the Chevalier de Niverville, 1747. Archives des colonies, series C11A, volume 117.

(P)-“226 fire-steels”
Supplies issued to 226 habitants for the expedition led by M. Chevalier de la Corne, 31 May 1747 Archives des colonies, Series C11A, volume 117

Fire Kit: Gunflints

(P)- “36 gunflints”
Supplies for the expedition led by the Chevalier de Niverville, 1747. Archives des colonies, series C11A, volume 117.

(P)- “6 gunflints”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)


Fire Kit:
Tinderbox

(P)- “An Indian often goes off alone…with only his musket, powder and shot, a tinderbox…
Pouchot, Pierre. Memoirs on the Late War in North America between France and England pg. 482

(P)- “one tinderbox”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

Fire Kit: tinder, punkwood/fungus (“bear crap fungus”)

(P)- “…by the help of their punk, made a fire.”
A Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Johnson (1754-57) as found in Calloway, Colin G. North Country Captives pg. 61


Sewing equipment:
Thread

(P)- “Two hanks of thread…”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

(P)- “Two skeins of thread...”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

Sewing Equipment: Awl (set in handle)
(P)- “…one awl”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

(P)- “…one awl.”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

Sewing Equipment: Needles

(P)- “…six needles…”
Bougainville, Antoine The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville pg. 87

(P)- “…6 needles...”
List of supplies issued to Canadian militia by Bourlamaque. National Archives of Canada, MG-18, K-9, Papiers Bourlamaque, Volume 6, 2e partie (1756-1760)

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Mario
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Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:57 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

(P)- Primary Source (S)- Secondary Source

Provisions


Seasonings:
Salt

(P)- “The salt was a grey, finely powdered variety.”
Kalm, P. Voyage de Pehr Kalm au Canada en 1749 pg. 383

(P)- “one bushel of salt”
Household inventory dated Sept. 1755- Feb. 1756, as found in Peyser, Joseph L. Jacques LeGardeur de Saint Pierre: Officer, Gentleman, Entrepreneur page 299

Issued rations: Bread (biscuit), salt pork and pas.

(P)- “M. de Rigaud in his letter of the 27th said that he had 152 sacks of biscuits which should make 5,000 rations, 70 kegs of salt pork of 45 pounds apiece, 30 bags of peas, and 38 quarters of flour.”
Bougainville. Pg 19

(P)- “All troops, including the militia, tomorrow will take 4 days bread…”
Bougainville. Pg. 22

(P)- “…bread, salt pork, peas on the basis of filed ration. Each officer has in addition three pints of brandy and two pounds of chocolate.”
Bougainville. Pg 87

(P)- “The ration is composed of two pounds of bread, half a pound of salt pork or a pound of beef and four ounces of peas.”
Bougainville. Pg 92

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Mario
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Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 12:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Selected Contemporary Accounts of French-Canadian milice:

Something I put together a couple years ago as an easy reference. These are all from primary sources.



Clothing/Gear


"Since the Indians & Canadiens wear nothing more than a shirt in fine weather, they were very soon ready for action."
Pouchot, pg167-168

"Certain English officers & soldiers took some hunting muskets from our officers & militiamen, but buy stealth rather than force."
Pouchot, pg 244

"...among whom there were many Canadians who were dispersed among the regiments to swell their numbers. These men, who are only suited to petit-guerre & who were in any case poorly armed since they only had simple hunting muskets without bayonets, were a hindrance to the operation."
Pouchot, pg 255

"Most of them were without bayonets. Since the colonial soldiers {CFdlM} and the Canadians were without them, we had adapted woodsman's knives to fit onto the end of a stick as a substitute, which the men kept with them at their posts."
Pouchot, pg. 236

"Sealskins were here made use of to cover boxes and trunks...the common people had their tobacco pouched made of the same skins..."
Kalm. pg 395

"Though many nations imitate the French customs, I observed on the contrary, that the French in Canada in many respects follow the customs of the Indians, with whom they have constant relations. They use the tobacco pipes, shoes, garters, and girdles of the Indians. They follow the Indian way of waging war exactly; they mix the same things with tobacco; they make use of the Indian bark boats and row them in the Indian way; they wrap a square piece of cloth around their feet {as a moccasin liner}, instead of stockings, and have adopted many Indian fashions.
"The peasants, and especially their wives, wear shoes which consist of a piece of wood hollowed out, and are made almost slippers. Their boys and the old peasants themselves wear their hair behind in a queue, and most of them wear red woolen caps at home and sometimes on their journeys."
Kalm, pg511

"On the eighth the Chevalier de Levis returned from St. Frederic. He found 950 Canadians, and this detachment is composed of the good kind, almost all voyageurs. One recognizes them easily by their looks, by their size, and because all of them are tattoed on their bodies with the figures of plants or animals."
Bougainville. pg 288

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Mario
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PostPosted: Sun Jul 18, 2010 1:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

On the battlefield

"Canadian and Indian canoes sent to lie in wait at the great point of Oswego to observe the movements of the English barges."
Bougainville, pg 25

"M. de Rigaud ordered to go with the Canadians and Indians and cross the river three-quarters of a league upstream and to harass the enemy."
Bougainville, pg. 26

"...who left with a score and a half of the most active Canadians with the intention of going as far as the fort and not returning until they had made a coup."
Bougainville. Pg 40

"M. de Vaudreuil proposes to form a detachment of two thousand men to engage the enemy in combat in the Canadian manner. I do not know what bait can make people leave a fort who are deterimined to stay shut up in it and come out into the woods to fight Canadian style."
Bougainville. pg 42

"...the other, composed of eighty Canadians and twenty French volunteers, will leave Carillon and will go to the same bay where the barges wee, go up the Bouquet River, search all this area, cross Lake Champlain, and reconnoiter beyond La Loutre River."
Bougainville. pg 47-48

"Eight Indians and as many Canadians left this evening from the portage camp in two canoes to go and make a strike at Fort George."
Bougainville. pg 56

"Chevailier de Levis twice ordered the Canadians and troops of la Marine to make sorties and take them in the flanke."
Bougainville, pg. 232

"They never made war in Canada before 1755. They never had gone into camp. To leave Montreal with a party, to go through the woods, to take a few scalps, to return at full speed once the blow was struck, that is what they called war, a campaign, success, victory."
Bougainville. pg 252

They follow the Indian way of war exactly."
Kalm, pg.511

"...the English advanced only in the most fearful manner and that when they attacked, could not estimate the numbers of their enemy because our men were always spread out and hidden in the trees...As a result they were crushed by the fire of men who were excellent marksmen."
Pouchot, pg. 170

"The French, for their part, threw themselves behind trees as soon as they saw the English & began to fire their muskets."
Pouchot, pg. 87

"Trust only the French regulars for an expedition, but use the Canadians and Indians to harass the enemy."
Montreuil, ADC to Gen. Dieskau. Cited in Parkman, pg. 219

"A Canadian in the woods is worth three disciplined soldiers, as a soldier in a plain is worth three Canadians."
Chevalier de Johnstone, cited in Parkman, pg. 432

"The Canadians are generally good marksmen. I have seldom seen any people shoot with such dexterity as they."
Kalm, pg. 563


"...God knows we do not wish to disparage the value of the Canadians...In the woods, behind trees, no troops are comparable to the natives of this country."
Bougainville. Letter to Madame Herault, 20 Feb. 1758



Bougainville, Louis Antoine de. Adventures in the Wilderness, 1962 ed.

Parkman, F. Montcalm & Wolfe

Pouchot, Pierre. Memoirs on the Late War in North America between France and England 2004 ed.

Kalm, Peter. Travels in North America

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bigdeutscher
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Real Name: Todd Beckmeyer

PostPosted: Mon Nov 15, 2010 6:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wow i never enjoyed reading something on the web as much as that
That really puts me there
Now I want a Fusil
Deutsch

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Mario
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Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Mon Nov 15, 2010 9:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, Todd. It's a labor of love.

I should actually update it. I've done some revisions lately.


Mario

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bigdeutscher
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 16, 2010 9:34 am    Post subject: can you show me the way Reply with quote

Mario
I wish I lived up your way ,you fellas look like you have a wonderful time.And with the little to nothin I know of the period,I think you all look great.
Who is the indian with the wild look in his eyes, leaning against the cabin
I have been a C.W. re-enactor since 1976 Lived in Texas for 20 years now back in the Heartland of P.A. Joined the 43rd of foot and C.W. stuff is all sold off
I am German and would like to find, similar info about the German Farmers That might of takin up Arms in the same time period and into the Rev War
Mario..... Sir , I thank you for your help
Todd E. Beckmeyer
2nd Pennsylvania Reg.
York Pennsylvania

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Mario
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Real Name: Mario Doreste

PostPosted: Tue Nov 16, 2010 6:53 pm    Post subject: Re: can you show me the way Reply with quote

bigdeutscher wrote:
Who is the indian with the wild look in his eyes, leaning against the cabin


That's Frank.


bigdeutscher wrote:
I am German and would like to find, similar info about the German Farmers That might of takin up Arms in the same time period and into the Rev War


On the RevWar side of life, many of Joseph Brant's Loyalist followers were of Palatine German decent.


Mario

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Last edited by Mario on Wed Dec 08, 2010 12:24 am; edited 1 time in total
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Le Loup
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Real Name: Anonymous

PostPosted: Sun Dec 05, 2010 10:32 pm    Post subject: Persona Details & Equipment. Reply with quote

Great post, many thanks.
Regards, Le Loup.
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