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Link, Cornell Historical Literature of Agriculture

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Jim Jacobs

Real Name: Anonymous

PostPosted: Thu Oct 01, 2009 2:30 am    Post subject: Link, Cornell Historical Literature of Agriculture Reply with quote

Larsen Papers on Peter Kalm....
(articles- Peter Kalm)

And here's an excellent period essay that gives a good idea of the state of agriculture in 1733.....

The horse-hoeing husbandry, or, An essay on the principles of tillage and vegetation: wherein is shewn a method of introducing a sort of vineyard-culture into the corn-fields, in order to increase their product, and diminish the common expence, by the use of instruments described in cuts

Author: Tull, Jethro, 1674-1741;cc=chla;rgn=full%20text;idno=5743361;didno=5743361;view=image;seq=0436;node=5743361%3A3

(Of special interest, plates of early 18th century plows)
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Jim Jacobs

Real Name: Anonymous

PostPosted: Thu Oct 01, 2009 2:35 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe we could get Jason to start a sticky post of links pertinent to traditional gardening, starting with the above. Jason?
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Joined: 21 May 2007
Posts: 289
Location: Ouisconsing, Pays d'en Haut
Real Name: Isaac Walters

PostPosted: Thu Oct 01, 2009 2:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Here are some interesting quotes from Kalm's Travels that I pulled awhile back... most are from his travels among French folks

Garden Notes from Peter Kalm

“The Kitchen herbs succeed very well here. The white cabbage is very fine, but sometimes suffers greatly from worms. Onions (Allium cepa) are very much in use here, together with other species of leeks, They likewise plant several species of gourds, melons, salads, wild succory or wild endive (Cichorium Intybus) [my note… chicory] several kinds of pease, beans, French beans, carrots, and cucumbers. They have plenty of red beets, horse-raddishes and common radishes, thyme, and majoram. Turnips are sown in abundance, and used chiefly in winter. Parsnips are sometimes eaten, though not very common. Few people took notice of potatoes; and neither the common (Solanum tuberosum) nor the Bermuda ones (Convolvulus Batatas) [my note… sweet potato] were planted in Canada. When the French here are asked why they do not plant potatoes, they answer that they cannot find any relish in them, and they laugh at the English who are so fond of them. Throughout all North-America the root cabbage (Brassica gongylodes Linn.) [my note… refers to kohlrabi] is unknown to the Swedes, English Dutch, Irish, German, and French. Those who have been employed in sowing and planting kitchen herbs in Canada, and have had some experience in gardening, told me that they were obliged to send for fresh seeds from France every year, because they commonly lose their strength here in the third generation, and do not produce such plants as would equal the original ones in taste and goodness.” Pp. 417-418

“All their corn is summer-corn; for as the cold in winter destroys the corn which lies in the ground, they never sow in autumn. I found white wheat most commonly in the fields. They have likewise large fields with pease, oats, in some places summer-rye, and now and then barley. Near almost every farm I met with cabbages, pumpkins, and melons.” P. 435

Kalm mentions French apple-trees, cherry-trees, and plum trees. p. 478 pears on p. 479

“Near each farm there is a kitchen garden, in which onions are most abundant; because there French farmers ear their dinners of them with bread, on Fridays and Saturdays, or fasting days… Pumpkins are likewise abundant in the farmers’ gardens. They dress them in several way , but the most common is to cur them through the middle, and place them inside of the hearth, towards the fire, till they are quite roasted. The pulp is then cut out of the peel, and eaten; people above the vulgar put sugar to it. Carrots, salad, French beans, cucumbers, and current shrubs, are planted in every farmer’s little kitchen garden.
"Every farmer plants a quantity of tobacco near his house, in proportion to the size of his family. It is likewise very necessary that they should plant tobacco because it is so universally smoked by the common people... Almost all the tobacco which is consumed here is the produce of the country and some people prefer it even to Virginian tobacco; but those who pretend to be connoisseurs reckon the last kind better than the other"” Pp. 481-482

“Several people here in town have got the French vines, and planted them in their gardens. They have two kinds of grapes, one of a pale green, or almost white; they other, of a reddish brown colour. From the white ones they say, white wine is made; and from the red ones, red wine. The cold in winter obliges them to put dung round the roots of the vines, without which they would be killed by the frost… They make no wine of them here, because it is not worth while; but they are served up at deserts. They say these grapes do not grow so big here as in France.
Water-melons are cultivated in great plenty in the English and French American colonies; and there is hardly a peasant here, who has not a field planted with them. They are chiefly cultivated in the neighbourhood of towns; and they are very rare in the north part of Canada.” Pp. 485-486

“Gourds of several kinds, oblong, round, flat or compressed, crook-necked, small, &c. are planted in all the English and French colonies… Gourds are a considerable part of the Indian food; however, they plant more squashes than common gourds. They declare, that they have had gourds long before the Europeans discovered America; which seems to be confirmed by the accounts of the first Europeans that came into these parts, who mentioned gourds as common food among the Indians. The French here call them citrouilles, and the English in the colonies, pumpkins.” P. 487

We shall never achieve harmony with land, any more than we shall achieve absolute justice or liberty for people. In these higher aspirations, the important thing is not to achieve but to strive.
Aldo Leopold
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Real Name: Anonymous

PostPosted: Mon Oct 05, 2009 8:13 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Now there is a trail food list. when in season.
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